April 22, 2024

Navigating the Sport Technology Space - Joshua Hagen | Sports Biometrics Conference 2018

Published June 12, 2023, 3:20 a.m. by Courtney

Dr. Joshua Hagen has a diverse background in bioelectronics research and Human Performance Monitoring and Augmentation. In 2018, Josh became the Director of the Human Performance Innovation Center at the Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute at West Virginia University. Josh leads a multidisciplinary team focused on optimizing the performance of military, athletics, and clinical patient populations, using the Fusion Sport smartabase platform to aggregate data. This will be a fantastic insight into his cutting edge research in human performance and sport biometrics, and how we can best utilize data to improve athlete performance.

The annual Sports Biometrics Conference brings together data analysts, sport scientists, researchers and high performance experts from all over the world to discuss the latest developments in sports technology, data analytics and sports biometrics.

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yeah just thrilled to be here and I

think it's nice that we're all kind of

coming together with the same

perspective I think we're all you know

we all have different roles and we're

doing everything's but we're all pretty

excited about this human performance

space and excited about sport biometrics

and measuring things and technology and

yeah we might all be coming at it from

different places I think we're all kind

of going at the same end goal so when I

was talking to Bob about you know kind

of thinking about what to talk about

today you know a lot of a lot of topics

came up is evaluating technologies and

how do we analyze the data and how do we

do a lot of things and I want to take a

step back before we get into all of that

and just talk about some cultural things

and kind of understanding why we're

doing what we're doing and I think a lot

of the talks have really harped on that

the last day and a half but I think it's

really important and I you know kind of

drawing from my perspective on a lot of

this is so I I'm incredibly lucky to

work in this field so so that's person

foremost is that I found my dream job of

what I do day to day and found my dream

location to do it a little less than a

year ago to West Virginia to the

Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute but I

didn't even know like ten years ago I

didn't know sports science existed

obviously Sports Science has been around

for a very long time since we've been

competing in athletics from the history

the Olympics we've been trying to get

better in optimize performance but I

think sports science as we know it and

as it's now becoming a culture and

becoming a topic there's a lot of

different ways to get into it so a

little bit of the ways that I just

absolutely stumbled my way into this and

I get asked all the time now that you

know sports night isn't becoming a thing

it's like hey I want a higher sports

scientist what kind of educational

background should I look for and my

answer is always yes there's a lot of

ways to come out like there is no degree

in sports science there are a couple

overseas I think that's changing a

little bit but there's a lot of

different ways to come at it and really

when I think about defining sport

science it's how do we use

evidence-based practice to enhance

performance that's what we're all trying

to do and you can define performance any

way you want to define it so if you're a

rehab doc trying to help somebody

recover or cope with Parkinson's or

Alzheimer's all the way up to NFL

athletes right we're trying to optimize

performance so it's how you define it

and the steps that you take to do that

that's what we're trying to do so I kind

of started out I'm an engineer

so if I say anything wrong from

physiology I'm gonna use that as my lake

yeah this is why I got it wrong but I

think there's a lot of ways to come at

it and we can always learn so that's

kind of my big takeaway is you know if

you come at it from a technology

perspective you can learn the physiology

to come at it from a physiology

perspective you can learn the technology

if you come at it from pure data

analytics you have to learn kind of both

those spaces and I think alternatively

if you're on the physiology space or the

tech space you need to learn something

on the analytic side so we need to know

obviously you have different people on

your teams to do all these different

things but you need to know all this so

I was an engineer and I just got really

lucky and I was a chemical engineer your

undergraduate and then work designing

chemical plants and was bored to tears

and I just knew this really funny

British dude I was one of my professors

and he worked at he'd do a lot of

research for the Air Force at

wright-patterson Air Force Base in

Dayton Ohio and just connected up with

him and went to grad school and just

kind of found my way into materials

engineering and got into bio electronics

and that flexible devices became things

so electronic band-aids and things like

that so I was kind of more on the

developing technology side and we're

really interested in you know sort of

the they're now becoming kind of mid

term maybe even near-term technologies

but as Mark was talking about there's

lots of great things we can measure in

blood and sweat and saliva and

internally there's lot of development

that still needs to be done so I was

doing a lot of work on that space really

fun stuff lots of great sweat sensor

work that's you know got a that is

coming out now and it's gonna keep

coming out but then kind of like five

years ago this explosion of wearables

started happening right so we all

started wearing fit bits and jawbone

when that was a thing and I watches and

companies come and companies go

so that was my opportunity when I was in

the DoD to say let's just understand

everything that's out there I still

remember I was I was that Starbucks is

trying to clear my mind and I was

looking up these back when adidas made

technology products and they had

something that you clip on your shoe I

was like I'm gonna buy that I'm gonna

buy everything on the market I'm gonna

figure out what's going on and I'm gonna

use project money to do it

so I don't use my own so I'm kind of a

geek I like technology so literally just

started buying everything and just

understanding what's out there because

at that time in the DoD like if I don't

have to create it and put money in

developing and if I can leverage what

industries do

you see with all these companies out

here like there's a ton going on and a

couple of talks yesterday we're like

this is an exciting time yes the Wild

West of sports science and the Wild West

of Technology and there's a lot out

there and we'll kind of go through how

you how you select some of the things

but we're really lucky because if that

stuff didn't exist we couldn't do all

this fun stuff and nobody geeks out more

than I do when I like I try to know what

everything is going out there when I see

a new thing and a new shiny object or a

new website I get all fired up and I

can't wait to get it and then I get a

little bit more critical of it when I'd

get more into it but it's just an

exciting time to be in all this so when

I started buying all these things then

it really became apparent to me of

coming at it from a scientific side as

like data quality is number one I need

tons and tons and tons and tons of data

in the very first study we did was on

firefighters and they're all geared up

in our lab on a treadmill going to

maximal fatigue and IV in their arm I

had sweat patches on at every device

known to man

it was a great study but then kind of

looking at it like we've got good

results but like oh okay so if all of

that works then now I have to gear this

firefighter up with a hundred different

things that's not the right way to go so

we need to start think about we're doing

so then I really started getting

interested in why are we measuring what

we're measuring just taking a step back

and instead of just jumping straight in

and buying every single thing that's out

there which would be really fun to do

let's start really understanding what

we're doing and I got really really

lucky in the beginning of 2014 you know

I had this kind of idea so I was in Ohio

born and raised about 45 minutes south

of Columbus so I bleed Buckeye football

that's my favorite thing now it's in the

Mountaineers but is the greatest thing

so I was like okay so what if I go to a

place where they have infinite resources

I want to see how they train their

athletes to perform on 12 or 13

Saturdays every year best of the best

money is pretty much no object what are

they doing he no it's also a way for me

to just get in there and see something

cool but what happened is I got in there

and they opened up their doors they were

amazing and Doug Callen was the guy that

got me in the head athletic trainer

there at the time he's still there an ad

role but they opened everything up and

they just said hey here's what it is and

what I found was I just found piles of

piles of data I mean this is one of the

best football programs in the country

they got binders of data they're

measuring all this stuff they have

spreadsheets all those great things and

I was like this is awesome what are you

guys doing with

data I was like we put in that binder

it's like alright but what do you do

with is like it goes in the binder it's

like I I was like so how about we make a

deal you give me all that data and I'll

start trying to tell you what it means I

did the time I had no idea what it

mattered what I was gonna do with it but

I just saw this treasure trove of data

this opportunity to do really really fun

stuff with them so that kind of expanded

support science and kind of created to

support science and Jimmy talked about

it yesterday at Ohio State and and

worked with them and that was just an

absolute blast and working with Mick

Moradi who's the absolute best in the

business was a ton a ton of fun and then

at the same exact time I got really

really lucky and got to know military

group and got to know Mark Stevenson and

kind of had the same ideas like oK we've

got all this data with all these

wearables all these technologies what if

we had this one place where all the data

went and this was maybe four or five

years ago and what if we knew everything

about that data and what if we had a red

yellow green status for exactly where

you're athlete at was that today

and what we want to do with them and

that's kind of what I pitched as if like

I knew how to do it but it was more like

let's figure this out together and it

was like heck yeah we want that let's

figure that out and fast forward today

like we're still not there like there

still is no red yellow green one metric

for an athlete because it can't be done

and as Mark stated there's tons and tons

of thing as you go into that but we can

get really close and we're doing really

good and it's with all the bright minds

in the room and all the technologies and

doing things the right way that we can

really get to that so I've been

amazingly blessed and privileged to work

on the military side on the athletic

side n-c-double-a professional and the

reason I say all of that is that I think

I have a unique perspective that I've

seen a lot of different places and I've

seen things done well we've had

successes I've had massive failures - I

think a couple other speakers talked

about as well as I've learned more from

my failures it's painful at the time but

looking back at it that's those are the

big things that have happened and you

know one of the simplest pieces of data

the first thing we did in 2014 with the

Buckeyes and won the championship that

year which I had a lot to do with I'm

sure but it was really simple it was

back when jawbone was a thing if you

guys remember that from the first

activity trackers and literally we were

just looking at their night games and

they had struggled in a couple of their

first night games and then a couple of

players when they're getting taped up

for the night game we're like haven't

blown out my legs are tired

and of course coaching perspectives like

suck it up you're fine this is no big

deal and we looked at the data they'd

done like eight miles that day because

it's such a long day like you're

tripling walk-throughs you're doing all

these other things and it's simple it's

just steps it's distance there's nothing

it's not lactate it's not implantable

but then they kind of take took a look

at that data and like oh maybe we should

change the routine maybe we should get

these guys off their feet so after we do

walk through let's go to the hotel and

get off your feet for a couple hours and

then I mean there's lots of other

factors I'm not gonna say that's a big

thing but that's just taking a simple

piece of data looking at it under like

listening to the athlete what they're

saying and then providing action so

simple actions simple data but it was

great and then that same job oh and on

the military group we worked with we

were like can use it for sleep and steps

and all this stuff and I think the very

first training event they did they threw

them all in the Atlantic Ocean and half

the Jawbone's came back half or in the

ocean so that was a fail but that was a

good learning experience they've gotta

attach a little bit better so I'm really

lucky now to be at West Virginia to

where I'm still available to work with

all the athletes I working with all the

sports so doing a ton with football

women's soccer they're still doing a lot

of work in the military but now it's

opened up a clinical population so now

as I talk about defining performance

across this whole state of health and

well-being so now I get to work with

chronic pain patients opioid addicts

Alzheimer's patients general populations

of medical students National Guard

you know just normal everyday people so

we're trying to optimize performance for

all these people and there's lots of

different ways to do that and and that's

why I wanted to kind of bring all of

that together so no matter who you work

with I know a lot of us are focused on

athletes in this room but we've talked

about coaches like we got to take care

of our coaches we got to take care of

our own practitioners we got to take

care of a lot of people so how do we

start navigating that space so that's my

kind of my why of why I'm doing all of

this and we had a great talk yesterday

about you know just understanding like

why are you doing this and so I'm doing

it to help all those populations like

I'm more fired up than I've ever been to

be able to help all those populations

and no barriers like if you you tell me

we need to do research in PTSD or TBI

we're gonna do it I'm gonna find a way

to do it but now getting into the

practical like that's great to have this

grand vision and let's just do it but

there's practicality to it so how do we

start kind of stepping through all

these different ways and ultimately

getting the technology space and picking

the right things and doing the right

things but you got to understand that

before so take a step back and really

understand that so as you know we talked

about you know great talks yesterday

saying hey we want valid devices we want

third-party testing we want

scientifically backed things and I think

we would all in this room agree to that

like we want science-based decisions on

what we're trying to do

do we have scientifically back data

behind all of this no absolutely not

some of it have some yeah and some of

them have none yeah

but we we have to were all responsible

to kind of step through the space so you

can't just kind of push it off to

somebody else and say hey you just tell

me unless you're the ultimate boss that

doesn't have time to do it I think we're

all responsible for this so as I start

now that I'm in academia I got a little

bit more philosophical about things so

I've had a chance in this last year to

really kind of look at the sports

science space and kind of where we at

and it's been kind of mind-boggling

boggling to me for years and you mean

I've talked about this a lot is like

you've got a NCAA university and you've

got brilliant minds all across that

university you have great athletics

across university they don't ever or

they rarely rarely ever talk to each

other right so great minds great

athletes they don't talk like they

athletic departments we'll go somewhere

else and go to companies to get things

and there's a reason for that it's not

like this is an anomaly and it happens

all over the place because we talk

different languages so on the left side

and all dogon scientists all day because

I am one is so the focus of and this is

generalized but I think it's generally

true so a scientist in academia like

their priorities and their careers are

it's effectively basic science but

they're judged on peer-reviewed

publications and so those are journals

and we're lucky that we have tons and

tons of science and journals and

evidence-based stuff to read it's really

hard to get things published it's a ton

of work and it requires a lot of money

so in order to get this publication's

you got to bring in grants so to get

grants you go to places like NIH and NSF

who have things that they're looking at

right so they're looking for basic

science they're looking for cancer

research and Alzheimer's research all

that has to be done that's amazingly

important but the amount of money that's

available for high-performance research

it's not a lot right so now we have to

think about trying to meet the

objectives of what a scientist needs to

get to

we need to get that scientist scientific

based evidence behind everything that

we're trying to do and then ultimately

they're looking for tenure what you need

grants a period publications to do that

and Jimmy is one of the best at this

where he kind of took a different

perspective and he was like I'm just

gonna work with athletes like he's got

the lab he's got the grad students and

the same thing that we're doing in West

Virginia's we have a coaching science

program and we have interns and kids

that have to do practicums and have to

learn technology and do stuff so guess

what you're gonna work with athletes

you're gonna measure things in the lab

you're gonna do things and we're gonna

try to translate some of that was in the

context of Education and then a lot of

things that we're trying to do on the

DoD side is yeah there's a little bit of

money there for high performance but not

compared to how much money we put into


so it's staggering how little we put

into protecting our military members

from high performance perspective based

on everything else we put in so just

kind of understanding where they're

coming from not to mention they talk a

different language so most times

professors will talk way over your head

and they won't understand anything about

what the practitioner needs because they

don't go and talk to the practitioner

right and the same side is like

practitioner rarely talks to the

scientist because we're talking

different languages so there's there's

outliers for that of course but now on

the practitioner side as we've heard

last couple of days you got a win today

take care of your athletes like I've got

if I'm gonna use something it better

make a difference today and we all know

in the scientific realm and talked about

it yesterday it's you need two good

years of data to do some objective

things in science but you can't go to a

coach and say I'm gonna do that give me

$200,000 I'm gonna do this for two years

and then I might tell you an answer like

that's not gonna fly right so we have to

pick and pull well that's where I think

this sport scientist role is critical so

being able to talk those different

languages and being able to tie those

two things together and we'll talk about

it a little bit more at the end of

really I think the goal of a sport

scientist is you need to create tons and

tons of applied research studies that

happen all the time you need to take

this data and as Mark mentioned like

we're lucky we have all this technology

that now we can take technology out of

the lab and take it to them so we need

to take it to them help them design

studies and understand that we don't

have complete control so they do a

normal publication with bringing in

subjects and controlling for nutrition

and all these different things we don't

have control over that so just

understanding what we control we'll talk

about that little bit more

so you would think that Bob like his

master plan was for us to all talk about

simon Sinek and i thought i was really

cool coming up with this and like how to

blow your minds not about this but we

all know about it but this guy hit one

of the the strength coaches Daryl Bauer

in West Virginia he'd he sent this to me

I don't know probably ten months ago

right when I started and said this is

how they helped define what their

program was and I think this is

important to kind of drill down of I got

to understand these things before we

dive straight in the technology so if

you're like maybe the one of the two

people in the room that hasn't seen this

it's a 2009 TED talk but it just hit me

like a ton of bricks like holy cow if we

don't understand how to define that for

organization like we're gonna be pretty

lost so I wanted to kind of divide up

the perspective of this talk of kind of

stepping through that from a sport

technology point of view and I'll point

out you know from from sports

performance one of the best so I got

again it completely lucky that when I

moved to West Virgina I didn't know

anything about the football program or

the staff or anything there and I just

jumped into a scenario where they had

this amazing culture already built in a

sterile Bower and Mike Joseph that did


and I walked into it and Daryl has this

amazing performance optimization chart

and it's it's his so I'm not showing it

here today we will at some point but

it's how they communicate with the

athletes and communicate with the

coaches and it's it's a detailed

optimization shark that says hey they

got cryotherapy we put in

photobiomodulation we're putting in a

flow tag we're doing all this amazing

stuff you got catapult you've got whoops

leap devices you got all the stuff in an

athlete's gonna be like why do I have

all this stuff what does that do but

they've created this culture like they

know exactly where everything ties in

and everything interrelates and fatigue

management and how this tells me about

this and it's all about optimizing the

athlete and taking care of the athlete

and without that and communicating that

to the athlete and the staffs like you

just think you're doing a hundred things

and I've seen it I've seen that at other

places where I've had athletes just flat

revolt and just rip stuff off their

bodies and throw it across the room

because they don't understand why

they're wearing it why am i wearing an

external load monitor when you're just

gonna crush me in practice every single

day because that communication isn't

there and you have to always talk to the

athletes oh hey this is why we're doing

it and it's great when athlete comes in

and just ask questions like I had an

hour-long conversation with will Grier


he want to know everything about his

data and heart rate variability and his

he's super into it and he understood it

but being able to be there and talk

through it and say hey this is this is

what it means and this is where

everything is mapping out like you want

every athlete to be like that and not

everyone will be but just kind of being

able to communicate that with every

dynamic so that's so far you know so far

my athletic career that's that's where

I've seen it done best so I wanted to do

is take one concept and obviously I

didn't come up with this but this really

hit me when I was I was reading this

book the reference is down there

Callison 2016 if I want to take care of

all these populations right if I want to

think about everybody in the room how do

we optimize performance for everybody is

there something that can define a

majority of the people that we're

working with and it's the recovery

stress State so what are we trying to do

we're trying to recover from whatever

stress we've induced on whoever we're

working with so if it's a head coach

they have a massive amount of stress

cognitive stress probably not as much

physical just probably not working out

there probably just grinding 16 20 hours

a day and just getting crushed all the

time so how do you understand the stress

that they're taking in and recover them

from that stress you've got a major

league baseball athlete right they have

different levels of stress they've got

physical stress they also have

psychological stress everybody's got

home stress so how do we now start

understanding how do we measure all

those different things so psychological

physiological so social stressors

quantify those and come up with a

comprehensive recovery plan and so how I

try to educate you know new teams or

something like you where we're trying to

understand this recovery state in a

stress State this is the bad side right

so this is what happens in athletes when

we we become under recovered over

trained and and burnt out right so if we

don't do that right and we don't

understand the training loads that we're

applying and don't understand their

recovery state and how their body's

adapting so as Mark said like just

simply putting a GPS device on an

athlete that only gives you a very small

picture a very expensive one but a very

small picture of what's happening that's

the mechanical work that athletes doing

doesn't tell you anything about the

internal work their body took to do that

doesn't tell you anything about

physiologically what how did the body

adapt to that and what are they ready

for the next day so I really need to

start and I like that the

the four different buckets that mark put

it is like you need to understand all

those different things to start looking

at this and we're trying to prevent all

these things on the right from happening

so to me it's all about comprehensive

monitoring so how do we start defining

and you have to do this for your each of

your individual groups but I'll break it

down into an example group thought we

start doing this so let's start

understanding how we how we on how we

look at this and how we monitor it and

so I'm huge on recovery and it's because

of all the influences of the groups that

I've worked with and all of my mentors

as well and but one of the reasons that

I came to this is yeah I work with a lot

of different populations but that's what

cuts across every single one of these

and kind of the first experience I had

with a high estate was you know we're

understanding training load we're doing

zephyr zebra all this great stuff but

trangle is not gonna change right urban

is gonna he's gonna work them hard every

day and it's probably not gonna change

so just knowing that's not gonna change

and in some military groups like you're

not going to tell somebody not to train

today or you're not going on the mission

you're not doing this so that's that's

out of the question for these groups

maybe it's not for your group and you

know soccer is different so soccer will

modify their training loads but the

thing that's pervasive across all of

them is recovery so there is some white

space at the end of the day so there are

things that we can do that you can

optimize your recovery to put your body

in the best position to take on that

training load you're gonna be that next

day if you can't modify it if you can

that's awesome so let's talk about the

how so now if we think about this

recovery stress state and how we're

digging into it the how and in a couple

there's a lot of different ways that

I've seen this in a couple yesterday is

our how and how we do this is measure

assessment move so we want to measure

and we're lucky with all these wearables

and all these technologies and getting

out of the lab we can have measure all

these different things and there's lots

of different ways to do it depends on

what your group is looking to do so

measuring it's one thing and we'll talk

about how you get valid technology and

test technologies do that assessing it

as a whole nother another ball of wax

there is understanding what that data

means and putting that context in and

I'm really glad mark brought that point

up in this four segments earlier and I

forgot to put this in there is that's

one of the critical pieces of data too

is like if you have all this data like

if you don't have something that defines

performance or something where a coach

says this is how you performed or how an

athlete performed

we're in trouble because you're only

going to be able to cross correlate

between training load and heart rate

variability and sleep which is

interesting but we're looking for

overall performance so that's really

critical too and that's one of the best

things we did it at Western Union this

year is we've got all these great iPad

kiosks everywhere and we're monitoring

tons of data and we kind of put this in

right before the season of like right

when they're weighing out at the scale

the Bluetooth streams their weight up it

was just uh you know we did our training

with RPE we did a one to ten like how do

you feel like you perform today and

again when we talk about Nath we can lie

about that it's trust between a coach

and the athlete like okay we're doing

this I want to know objectively how you

think you perform today and if you put a

four like head coach isn't gonna see

that strength coach is gonna see that

and we're gonna be able to correlate and

say hey let's let's see what's going on

like maybe you're under recovered or

maybe we need a nutrition or hydration

intervention something like that so

spinning it always in the positive for

that athlete but then that allows us to

correlate like I care how you feel like

you perform then it's simple it's one to

ten that's really critical data and the

whole I won't have a lot of time to talk

about this day but the whole objectives

like you do measure and assess well so

what if we don't do something about it

then there's we shouldn't be doing this

right so the whole training

interventions and recovering

interventions that's that's a whole

nother you know a couple hours on that

but we need to be able to get to that

and make those decisions so let's just

talk about a typical day in the life of

an athlete so I'm not going to talk

about we had great talks on biomechanics

another test that you might do weekly or

monthly your blood draws or things like

that I just want to look at the day in

the life of an athlete so you wake up in

the morning and you wake up with some

sort of stress response based on acute

to chronic workload and stress and all

these other things but you're kind of

waking up in a starting state so now

we've got early in the morning readiness

to train or readiness to perform however

you want to define that word it really

doesn't matter in you can this can be an

athlete this can be an executive

whatever so readiness to train a lot of

the metrics that can go into that are

understanding what your acute to chronic

training load was leading up to that

heart rate variability which I'll talk

about in a second the subjective data

that mark talked about it's incredibly

important what training phase you in

that like do I expect you to be crushed

today because of what I did to you

yesterday like understanding that

context is really important because just

because you see some red scores maybe

you're supposed to be red right now

supposed to be green every day because

then we're not pushing you hard enough

so once we understand all that at the

beginning of the morning then at some

point of the day you're gonna train

right so it's physical training it's

cognitive training it can be class work

whatever it is you're now undergoing

some stress and we want to measure that

stress and as Mark talked about we've

got an internal workload next turn a

workload and we've got weight room we've

got lots of different ways that we can

measure this and we'll go through some

of those technologies so then once you

get done with that training now it's

time to recover and get prescriptive

about that recovery so looking back at

all that data and now incorporating the

workload data and incorporating rate of

perceived exertion which is incredibly

powerful with super simple heart rate

variability again and understand all of

the context of that how do we get

prescriptive about recovery and then

finally we've got sleep and we'll talk

about that some more that's the most

critical part of the day and we need to

understand that better so if we now

start thinking about that from the

perspective of let's look at readiness

to Train subjective wellness there's

very simple ways to do this and so now

we've all got smartphones we've got apps

that can do this if and I like to talk

about this like if you're at a small

university and you don't have any money

like there's ways to do all of this for

free right so pen and paper and

Microsoft Excel can do all of this it's

great to have shiny AMS platforms and

apps and all this stuff like I love it

it looks great it's easy to use but you

don't have to have it to do it but this

is the way that we do it so we deploy

app based questionnaires for some of our

teams where now you're looking at sleep

subjective right so sleep hydration

fatigue and you can set up these

questions however you want there's good

standards for doing that you can provide

scoring descriptors all these different

things there it's really important on

the top right hand corner that's

understanding soreness and understanding

any issues going on the body and if this

is a communication tool and one of the

best in the business I've seen it this

is Steve Tashjian at the Columbus Crew

and the reason this is so successful for

him is because you care so much about

the data and he will talk to every

single one of his athletes like if

something's different in their data

you'll actually have a conversation with

them say hey I see that you know your

hamstrings kind of flaring up or you got

an old injury that's flaring up talk to

me about it or your sleep has dipped is

something going on and showing that

athlete that you care about that data

you're looking at it's not a black box

like if it's a black box and they don't

hear from you for six months they're

gonna not comply with this their

probably not going to be honest about it

if you punish them for not doing it then

that's going to create a negative


- so super simple lots of different ways

to do it but that's the way we kind of

look at that subjective status I do want

to point out a couple of papers

definitely the one on the left it's an

awesome paper from Ana saw and it

basically talks about all the different

ways to use self-reported measures and

some evidence on you know how that can

even be better than some technologies

and that's kind of thing about the

scientific space like for every for

every paper that you read that says one

thing I can find you a paper that's

gonna say the exact opposite right

except for a couple of scenarios but

we'll leave politics out of it but

anyway so you just have to kind of trust

trust some of the things that you read

and if that fits in with your culture

and if it's a peer-reviewed publication

and trusted authors and then those are

good things and it's all valid data is

how you want to utilize it for yourself

so let's talk about heart rate

variability is kind of a second segment

in this so for those of you that are not

familiar with heart rate variability

this is not heart rate this is a you

know three to five minute measurement

typically first thing in the morning

right after you wake up and it's

understanding the parasympathetic and

sympathetic dominance of your autonomic

nervous system so this is now a

quantitative measure of how did your

body adapt to that workload and how

ready are you to do these things today

so if you're sympathetic your your

heart's beating like a metronome like

the one on top parasympathetic you have

a natural variability of your heart

you can be overly parry sympathic

parasympathetic as well but my point is

with the technologies today like we can

quantitatively measure this so this to

me this is critical information so I

would want to do this on as many

athletes as I can do this on as far as

technology is allowed there's some

technologies it's like for 10 bucks you

can do this on your athletes there's

more expensive ones that have different

bells and whistles to it as well and

this is why we care because I'm trying

to set your body up to positively adapt

to that workload I'm gonna give you and

if physiological your body is in the

right state to do that and I can measure

that through subjective and heart rate

variability and all this stuff like

that's critical information I want to

know that so talk about now moving from

the readiness to train now you start

training it's another really great paper

basically just looking at monitoring

athlete training loops and all the

different ways to do it this is a

consensus paper tons and tons of great

references in here so I highly recommend

reading that to kind of get a start

start on training load we got ed 1 to 10

it's incredibly well published again it

can be free paper and pen or you can do

it based on an app or however you want

to do it and it's literally I think this

is great because it's it's a good

standard so if you think about you've

got GPS devices on your athletes that's

just taking the training load on the

field so you're not taking training load

in the weight room you're not taking

psychological load other different ways

to do this but now if you look at every

single session of stressor that they're

doing you can now understand that

workload subjectively from that athlete

with no technology cheap even free if

you want to use it now sleep I've so I

I'll talk about a study that we're doing

here in a second but sleep I think is

the number one thing long so we need to

understand quantity and quality of sleep

so in the room how many people think

they know how much sleep they get every

night whether you're wearing a device or

not like you keep track of how many

hours roughly sleep here tonight ok not

enough but that's good that's not good

but if that if I told you that every

single human being needs seven hours of

sleep every night to physiologically

recover on average from everything that

they've done and that's every human

being how many of you think you're

getting more than eight hours of sleep a

night okay a couple more than seven okay

less than seven all right so I think a

lot of that less than seven so it could

be that you're an elite sleeper and you

need like Jon Gruden says he gets four

hours of sleep a night now like it's

working out too well for him but if

you're an elite sleeper you can cope on

six hours of sleep a night how many

people think they're an elite they're

one of those genetically elite sleepers

that gets less than seven hours the

simplest thing you can do is give

yourself eight hours of a sleep

opportunity every night be in bed for

eight hours every night like whatever

happens sleep wise quality while you're

there like you've got to at least start

there because if you're only giving

yourself an opportunity for six hours

you're gonna get less than that right so

you've gotta at least start from there

regardless of technology and your great

talks yesterday on why we need sleep and

all that stuff I thought this would

great paper from Andy Murray this is a

simple survey paper and this is looking

at NCAA athletes and all of the

different recovery modalities that they

have so cold

immersion and nutrition sleep

cryotherapy all the stuff just asking

them what they thought was the most

important and they rated at eighty eight

percent that sleep was the most

important recovery tool that they had

but then when they asked him how many of

how many of these things you actually

use twenty only twenty four percent of

them said they use sleep as a recovery

tool right so they know it's important

but they're not using it as a tool so

we're kind of eliminating the most

important thing that we can be doing

alright so the what of all this so now

now we have at least outlined some

things that are important so training

load subjective stuff is easy so let's

talk about technology training load

heart rate variability and sleep so when

we look at technology evaluation I kind

of grouped it in these three categories

so as a scientist it's like a hundred

percent data quality like I've got a

it's got to be a hundred percent or even

like Mark said it's got to be within

three percent error which is pretty

tight which I agree with that's all

that's the only focus of a scientist now

you take an administrator this is what

they care about from left to right in

general like how much does it cost

that's all they care about how much does

it cost and then they might care about

logistics in terms of cost like if I

need somebody to run it and it's gonna

cost me hiring somebody that's what I

care about and they care at least about

data quality so we're I think a sports

scientists it's is we need to carry

equally across all those things and and

me as evaluating a new technology I I'm

kind of more like an administrator like

I'm gonna ask cost first because if it's

a greatest thing in the world but it

cost me a million dollars I can't use it

like I don't want to get excited about

it I don't want to even if I know it's

the greatest thing in the world and I'll

go to my football coaches and say hey I

got the greatest thing in the world but

cost a million dollars and be like get

out of here like that doesn't help me

right so but then the other important

thing that was talked about yesterday is

logistics so again if it's decent decent

cost and decent quality but it's a pain

to use and it you know we've got sleep

sensors on our athletes and and the

visualization is great motivation is

great data quality I'll find out about

soon but logistically the battery lasts

a day day and a half and it flips over

at night and like half our athletes have

trouble with and it doesn't always sync

so that's an issue like if we don't get

the data every day that's an issue so

you can have all those things nailed but

if you miss on logistics that's a big

thing so we have to take all these

different things into account so data

quality is huge and mark talked about it

as well so garbage in is garbage out so

if you've got even if you nail the

visualization and nail logistics and

they all getting all your data

aggregation in if the date is wrong

I can make analytics to you anything I

can find a correlation if I look hard

enough in anything but if the data is

wrong I'm gonna give you the wrong

answer so that's why data quality is

important and maybe I'll put a quick

plug in and here for data quality is

that something that hit me a few months

ago was and as Mark mentioned like he's

got the kind of three percent rule but

it's changing now this is not FDA

regulated stuff right so there's nobody

telling us how accurate this needs to be

and to his point like this heart rate

need to be ten percent accurate so my

plug is one of my grad students is doing

survey study and hopefully it'll get to

you guys I've seen him you know coming

from West Virginia University don't

throw it in your trash I want to know is

there a consensus with practitioners

with all these different technologies

what's acceptable and do we know so I

can tell you all day long how accurate

something is but if we don't have a

consensus on how accurate it needs to be

that doesn't help you select that

technology so that's something that'll

be coming out soon and really really

wants your and we want to break it down

to every different type of practitioner

every different group that you're

working with and just understand is

there a consensus and if there is this

is what it is and help us with those

decisions I'll take you running out of

time a little bit here but I want to

taking you through three studies that

we're doing so this one's about to be

published and I've said that a lot of

times but I mean at this time but this

was one of the first things we looked at

back in my Air Force lab we just

finished up all the data on it but

really was kind of looking if anybody's

got a watch that glows green on the back

which I think a lot of us do

that's PPG based heart rate right so

that's giving you heart rate and anybody

that's done a hard workout with that

device is probably noticed that it's

pretty wrong so that's what we want to

do is we want to take kind of all these

PPG based devices and just look at the

accuracy of those verses EKG trusted

heart rate and for this study we use

polar so polar is the industry standard

Polar's men publishing is 12 lead EKG

they got to be practical about the way

we do studies so I won't get in a lot of

details on this but basically we did we

had a cardio cycle and a high-intensity

interval cycle with subjects back to the

lab and the cardio cycle was treadmill

running stationary bike cycling and

rowing and physiologist designed and we

had the vo2 max s so any other max heart

rates and

basically coach them through getting

your heart rate up and down in certain

zones for 20 minutes so we hit a lot of

different zones in it and then

high-intensity interval was basically

just 30 seconds on 30 seconds off of a

lot of different push-ups pull-ups all

sorts of different things and just

looked at literally beat to beat

accuracy of all these different things

and so this kind of highlight of that

and it's it's what I expected but I

wanted to see it is kind of top from

bottom this is looking at basically the

mean b2b difference between all those

different activities and chess based EKG

devices are the most accurate which

which we would assume so you kind of see

a lot of the risk-based ones are kind of

at the bottom and there's some I mean if

you look at that there's some wildly and

accurate ones like he could be and those

are beats per minute so you can be 77

zero beats per minute off with some of

those devices so that's a big deal right

but there's nothing telling us what that

needs to be so that's where the survey

is gonna be important

so yeah risk based PPG devices and any

company that's being honest with you

will tell you that that's the fact like

it's motion artifact there's a class

action lawsuit against Fitbit like we

know these things but how accurate

doesn't need to be so if you're training

athlete on the field really accurate if

I'm trying to get an opioid addict to

move more in exercise it doesn't need to

be I just need to know that they're

moving and exercising some of the inner

ones are really interesting the

underarmor JBL one came out really well

and a little bit better than the jabra

but i think a lot of that is in fit so i

think that's a great place to do

heartrate but it's got to fit right I

think is a key thing behind that one and

that will come out soon so I'll take you

through heart rate variability study

that we're doing right now so about

halfway through our subjects so

basically the two different ways that

you can do heartrate or you've got EKGs

based waveforms so you see the nice QRS

peak there so again we're looking at

beat to beat variability and on a

millisecond time scale so now you look

at what the waveform looks like when it

gets leaves your heart and gets all the

way down to your wrist to your finger

wherever you're doing it now you see

this really smooth that's how it's

getting your heart rate so we're trying

to pick out that beat to beat on a

millisecond time scale but now on this

really smooth curve so that's basically

the big differential between these these

two so we're testing all these different

devices right now versus EKGs and so

like I said we're halfway through the

subjects we'll be done with that soon

and we'll get that published out there

but it's really looking at there's a lot

of different EKGs based devices out

there we wanna know how accurate those

are there's some that you may know on

your phone like you put your finger your

finger on the back of the flash

of your phone and get HRV so we're

testing a lot of those so I'll let you

know kind of how that turns out I kind

of think I know but I'll let my data

scientists tell me that there's other

important things about when you do your

measurement right so some devices will

give you the measurement while you're


well there's studies that show that has

nothing to do with your ans system

readiness so sleep your parasympathetic

system saturates when you sleep so you

need to do it when you wake up and every

study is done based on waking aroused

heart rate variability so if there's a

device that tells you what it is when

you're in your deepest sleep that's

probably an issue so let's talk about

sleep a little bit and then how

important this is so anybody sleep with

this every night so if you want to know

exactly what's going on in your sleep

staging I can't say that definitively

because again we're halfway through this

study but I mean that was me for 25 days

so I was the first subject so it wasn't

sleep lab but it was a take-home

fda-approved sleep profiler device

understanding exactly what the sleep

staging is which is so critical to

understanding yeah I understand you're

in bed and how long you're asleep but

understanding that all those different

stages that were talked about in the

sleep presentation yesterday that's

critical because your deep sleep is the

most restorative sleep that you need I

know we always kind of harp on REM sleep

and dreaming sleep but that deep sleep

like if you tell any athlete I can

increase your HGH levels they'll

probably be like yeah I want some of


well increase your deep sleep and that's

literally what your body is doing but I

need to understand what's going on and

so you get all of that deep sleep in the

beginning of the night then you start

catching up on your REM sleep and at the

end of the night so understanding that

and then looking at athletes like if you

shift your sleep and like some of those

hockey athletes from yesterday like if

you normally go to bed at 9:00 all of a

sudden you go to bed at 3:00 in the


you actually miss out on that deep sleep

so now you front-load your REM sleep and

I don't know why that is a fast asleep

physiologist that but now you're losing

the most important restorative physical

sleep and we only know that if we can

measure this well so basically the basic

different types of devices are acting

goofy so these are all of your risk

devices are just giving you movement

right and so the ones that will be

honest with you will say I can give you

how much you're sleeping but I can't

give you sleep staging so that's a good

way look and then there's other ones

that underneath your mattress so my grad

student thought this was magic when I

showed it to him but it's ballistic


and underneath your mattress can

actually from frequency frequency

measurements it can actually measure

your heart rate so we're testing all of

these I got to wrap it up here but this

is our sleep study that's going on right

now so we're halfway through this one

and again we'll get that data out as

fast as we can but these are all the

different devices that we're testing and

so we're using this sleep profiler

device so it's fda-approved from

advanced brain monitoring so that's how

we're getting a hundred nights from a

bunch of different subjects so wearing

that EEG all night and I'd used to have

permanent EKGs and prints on my forehead

but they went away but that's kind of

our standard behind that so I think I'm

out of time and I had some more things

that I want to talk about but I didn't

I'm management but I just wanted you

guys to know so you know we talked about

yesterday like it wouldn't be great if

there was a third place there are a

third party validation Center for all of

this stuff and the good news is that's

that's our place right so that's one of

the fundamental things that we're doing

at the Rockefeller on top of a lot of

other things is we are gonna do that

validation and literally I'm gonna buy

everything on the market unless it's

just completely weird and I'm gonna test

it out

so I'll rip through these so you have my

email address yeah head a little bit too

much to talk about Oh No

but anyway so please reach out to me

like if you have a new technology that

you're interested in hopefully like if

you email me and ask me about it we

already know we've already tested it if

we have it we will look at it within

reason like as long as we can test it

and do gold standard measurement against

it I've got lots of students that need

to learn so please reach out to me ask

me anything we've got a lot of other

great stuff on data visualization and

data analytics that didn't get to talk

about but love to chat with you guys so

okay so we talked a lot about the why

what have of sports science when it

comes to physiological monitoring and

where technologies and physio data

talked about the importance of building

a culture and then when it comes to

understanding what you need to measure

that's going to make an impact on your

athletes or your operators how to then

select those technologies to meet those

needs and I think we're at an exciting

time right now that there's a lot of

companies that are making some some

really interesting products you know

really pushing pushing the edge of what

we can

with our athletes but we need to be

diligent and make sure that we're

selecting the technologies that are

making difference for the people that we

work with have high data quality have

good logistics of being able to

implement a difference every day or

every week it's got to make the coaches

lives easier and not harder so having

said all of that let's say that we've

now selected all of the important pieces

of data that we need the technologies

are going to be able to do that you've

implemented this program now really is

where the the fun starts and what do we

do with this and I've worked with a lot

of groups to where yeah now we have a

lot of data but what are we going to do

with it and how do we make it actionable

so I want to talk through some things on

data visualization a little bit on data

analytics and how to put that data to

use and really a lot of what is going to

drive the day-to-day interaction with

data from coaches is data visualization

and there's a lot of different ways to

do this and data visualization is really

I feel that's a an equal blend of art

and science and there's a lot of

different ways to do it and you know a

lot of I know a lot of people are coming

from different backgrounds and you might

be a at a big Division one university

that's got a lot of resources or

professional team or maybe if I'm a

smaller school and there's there's

different ways to do it and the good

news is if you're in a smaller place

there are ways to do it essentially for

free and we talked about things like

subjective wellness and RPE you know you

can do those by hand if you have to and

then you can use Microsoft Office tools

so Excel being in the workhorse for that

and PowerPoint and we're to be able to

your reporting and so it's all it's all

feasible even if you have a budget of

close to zero it's just going to require

a decent amount of day-to-day

interaction and a lot more kind of daily

hand jamming of data and putting it in

and making those spreadsheets but it's

absolutely doable the other side of

things that I want to talk about or what

we call AMS is there athlete management

systems and these are ways to you know

just imagine you've got maybe five

different technologies that you've got

running with your team or five different

data sets coming in instead of kind of

the traditional route where you've got

them all going to separate Excel files

or separate separate databases or maybe

it sits on paper and trying to aggregate

that every single

and I'm not going into a lot of places

where it's literally just thousands of

Excel files and trying to make sense of


now these athlete management systems are

really designed to implement all of that

data and there's different ways you can

pull in data and something as simple as

you can directly input it so if you're

doing say caliber body fat measurements

you can directly input it into the

system or something incredibly more

complicated something like a GPS system

that could have maybe 500 different

variables for each athlete and you can

export a giant CSV file and then import

that in with a couple of clicks into

athlete management system in the other

way that's much preferred if possible

with something called an API a applied

programming interface where these

technologies that directly interface

with the athlete management system so

the way that our heart rate variability

works that we work with Omega wave as a

company we work with predominantly on

our HRV lots of other good technologies

out there too that's the one that we use

and so the API the athlete does their

three-minute measurement clicks finish

on the app goes up encrypted to the

Omega wave cloud and then that links

directly to our athlete management

system and we use smart base by fusion

sport for all of our work with our

athletes and military groups then that

comes directly down into smarter base

and so it's really seamless for the

sport coach or the the strength coach is

they're just doing the measurement and

it shows up magically so that's the

ideal way but there are other ways so if

you have a brand new technology that

comes in a CSV you know export and

import are simple ways to get these in

so that's the way to actually you know

think about the workflow that that's

gonna be an important part of this is

making sure that you've got good ways to

get data in there and it's it's not a

burden on your athletes and it's not a

burden on your coaches we wanted trying

to find ways to actually save time so

coaches your coaching athletes for

training and doing less of hand jamming

and you know putting things to excel

uploading all those things that take a

lot of time to take you away from the


now once the data is in there really

from a coaching perspective is is how do

we get you some immediate information so

some of the things

you'll want to see right away our

compliance so you want to see who's done

what and then see some quick indications

of you know what are what are some

pieces of data that I can action right

now and a couple ways to do that or you

know looking at what we call front page

reports and alerts so these have been

really valuable for us especially on the

alert side but a front plate page is

something you can go to and you can see

immediately who's filled out their

wellness questionnaires or immediately

who sync their their SmartWatch and then

even have some pretty simple color

coding for that so on the left hand side

we're looking at some easy wellness data

points and then just you know based on

what they scored a green yellow red of

what's going on and then the well-being

score what you see on the far right is

just simple you know subjective

questions one two five scaling and then

you get a total points course you can

sort by those numbers you get all the

sort in this case I have it worst at

first you can look at okay who's

reporting pretty low well-being score so

just has a pretty quick triage to kind

of see who's put it in and are there any

issues right now that's a good way to do


probably most effective thing that we've

seen recently with our our athletes is

been helpful to the coaches is these

automated email alerts so we can

basically set triggers so whenever that

piece of data is input that triggers an

alert that's important to the coaches we

can immediately send an email one

example of really simplistic data but

incredibly important is the weigh-in

way-out data that we do their football

team so the coaches are interested in

when they weigh in for the day how far

away are they from the goal weight and

if they're more than three pounds away

from the goal weight they want an alert

to show that conversely probably what's

more important than that is after

practice we do pre and post so if they

lose more than two and a half percent of

their body weight immediately an email

or is sent to strength coaches

nutritionists so they can actually

action that data so examples of that but

just think about any piece of data

that's coming in there's automated email

alerts can get really alert because if

you're coaching a hundred athletes how

do you how do you get alerted of

something that's going on and you set

those thresholds set those things so

it's a balance you don't want alert

fatigue and getting too many things in

but you also don't want to miss things

as well

and really one of the one of the things

that's that's been valuable to us is

again all of the data coming into one

place so I'm not looking into four or

five different systems and then trying

to piece things together and what that

allows you to do is now overlay data

from multiple data points so you can

look at training look and heart rate

variability on top of each other and

wellness and sleep on top of each other

and really how those those metrics start

interrelating that's that's where the

interesting data comes in so you're not

looking at five different systems you're

looking into one system and being able

to immediately action that data is

really the key to having these athlete's

management systems and and really the

the dashboard builders are where I spend

a ton of my time and that's you know

we're trying to help coaches make

insights into their data really quickly

and one of the best ways to do that is

through through data visualization and

creating these dashboards and and having

the power you know me as a sports

scientist I want the power to be able to

to click and drag and build things and

you know have that conversation with the

strength coach isn't you know where they

say hey I need to see this this and this

can I see it this way and then being

able to build those things in real time

and show them what it looks like is huge

and then me being able to be creative

and once I see data in there and say I

have an idea what would this look like

if I did that and actually do it in real

time and see it with real data because

that's you know you can build all day

long but beyond real data to look at it

see what it looks like so it's really

all that powers in your hands to be able

to create those custom visualizations

and really Drive it as a collaborative

process between sports scientists and

strength coaches and maybe even sport

coaches as well so being able to really

overlay the data and create custom

dashboards is huge

another thing that again is pretty

simple but you know it's been very

powerful for us it's thinking about ways

to again make meaning to this data so

back when I showed those you know quick

compliance alerts so if I showed like

you know a poor rating on fatigue or

high fatigue score kind of relating to a

red square how do I know obviously

athletes you know subjective data is

subjective data so I don't want to

compare one athlete to

so one may always report high soreness

one may never report high soreness so

it's a very personal thing and one way

to really balance those things out and

just make sure you're looking at an

individual on their level and not

comparing them to some somebody else

which is important especially with

subjective data sleep data heart

variability that's critical training

modes are different because you can you

can get in you might want to look at

positional comparisons and kind of how

they line up against their position but

one easy way to do that is a z-score and

again all these calculations we build

directly into our athlete management

system and we can calculate means and

standard deviations and these the

z-score off of that what z-scores allow

you to do is take a quick look at okay

that's the score today how many standard

deviations a way is that from that

individuals personal norm so I can

instantly see okay this is this is high

for them or this is low for them and the

way that we actually implement that are

these visuals built you know through the

dashboard builder and smart amazing

again this is probably been one of the

most effective visuals that we've had

and looking at examples of subjective

wellness data here so we're able to

actually look at this from both the team

perspective and an individual

perspective so I've got filters at the

top of this page that I can select the

entire team I can select a position

group I can select a single athlete and

then it automatically updates all those

graphs and I can drive into I want to

know what that athletes trend has been I

want to know what the team's trend has

been so if we look at this looking at

those bar graphs you know think about

the top one that's your just your

fatigue wellness score so I'm able to

see those yellow bar so the one on the

far right is the most recent piece of

data so what is that number and what is

that value today and it may be hard to

tell like okay that value is you know

maybe a four and a half but is that

hires I hope low for that athlete so

we've got overlaid with that with that

black line is the z-score so you see the

straight line across the middle

that's a z-score of zero which means

they're perfectly on their average and

above or below wherever that dot is is

how off their averages that day so you

immediately know what's going on with

that athlete what are their trends now

so that's that's really important

importantly subjective wellness data

heart rate variability data we've we've

looked at this a couple different ways

and HIV data can be pretty complicated

and it's very athlete's specific so you

want to make sure you look at it the

right way we had kind of an initial

triage way to look at this since we have

a lot of athletes using it and a couple

different visuals here where we look at

one one of these is more of a kind of

team trends and compliance so this one

basically from I'm a very high level one

of our most important things that we're

trying to do with our rate variability

is get you back into balance so you can

be in balance you can be highly

sympathetic or highly parasympathetic

those are basically the different zones

you could be in with heart rate

variability so the way that we've codes

these just kind of with with normal

averages and normal ranges is if you're

green you're in balance if your light

blue you're highly sympathetic if you're

purple your parasympathetic so this

isn't a green yellow red because that's

there's you know three different ways

that you can be and we know what green

is and the other two are basically out

of that balance and with HRV it's not

just you know parasympathetic is your

recovery score but that's not one of

those where the higher is always the

better because you can be overly

parasympathetic so we won't have a nice

balance between those two so right here

you can see a pretty quick indication of

compliance so basically the higher that

overall bar is the higher the number of

athletes that have done their

measurement that day then you can also

see those trends of kind of from a high

level how many greens do I have how many

Purple's how many blues do I have so

then you can drill that down into an

athlete specific trends and this is so

imagine you've got each one of those

lines is a player with their name on the

left and now you're kind of seeing what

each one of those dates is on the right

and each one of those dots refers to

what they've been at each one of those

dates so if you know I try to make it

really simple so if there's three

Purple's in a row we want to go address

that issue because now you have somebody

that's chronically parasympathetic and

there are some recovery strategies we

have a training strategies that we have

to try to get you back into green

balance what's good to have in these if

you're training hard is good to have a

lot of variation in your variation so be

you know being all greens all the time

it means you can probably tax the system

a little bit more

depending on the athlete in general

right and so we're just looking for

anything that happens a lot of days in a

row and that's we want to want to start

interviewing so again this is kind of

from a high level and being able to take

pretty complicated data looking a lot of

athletes and then drill in so say we're

now want to drill into a couple specific

athletes then we can go to a very

specific athlete dashboard so I can now

select that athlete I can look at more

time you know historical trends at a

more granular value or granular range

here and so looking specifically at the

two most critical metrics for us and

heart rate variability is that balance

score and then our MSSD is really the

most standard HRV score that you want to

be looking at so balance in this visual

that we've got is is really trying to

make this one simple as well so we did a

little bit of scaling and basically the

closer those two points are together so

that corresponding into the colors on

the other chart the closer those two are

together the light blue of the purple if

they're overlaid on top of each other as

some of those points are you can see

that's a perfectly in balance so that's

that's kind of what we're striving for

however you know depending on the

training load if you had a really hard

hard training I would expect you to be

out of balance so being able to now

overlay these things and look at and one

of the ways that we visualize that the

data with some of our teams is we've

overlaid balance and our MSSD with

training load and even subjective RPE so

they had a really high training load I

would expect them to report a higher RPE

and then if I'm seeing a dip in the

heart rate variability or high

sympathetic value or stuck in a high

parasympathetic value and that

corresponds to that training load that's

gonna make me say okay well yeah it's

off but this is why it's off so that's

really again where the power of these

dashboards is is being able to overlay

different you know triaging so taking a

hundred athletes and figuring out okay I

want to look at these five and going

into there and saying okay if this is

going on now I go to this visual I'm

just gonna kind of leave me in like okay

was it training load is that sleep

quality is it fatigues and soreness

what's going on with that to really help

drive those conversations you can have

with your athletes so that's a lot of

like kind of readiness to Train we think

about the training stress balance so

really looking at any of your

technologies so your heart rate monitors

for internal load your session our ps4

internal as well any GPS type devices

for external workload and there's some

really good papers out there on how to

look at training loads and one of the

probably one of the best things that I

was able to do with some coaches back at

Ohio State was you know I was getting a

lot of you know that obviously there's a

lot of different technologies out there

and each one is gonna call their

training load something different like

we'd use Zephyr technology and so they

used a physiological load as kind of

their training load score then a

mechanical load is there mechanical

score whereas polar uses training load

and so using different terminologies and

and then you can apply these training

stressed balances to anything so

distance covered any training load

metrics like the Polar's training load

or high speed distance high speed

running time and different hard zone

heart rate zone so we were getting a lot

of training low type metrics but it can

be easily confusing to a coach seeing

like okay what's this one mean again how

many times I had to you know write out

the equation for physiological load is

like okay we can simplify things by

looking at train stress balance and what

that's looking at is your seven-day

average of that variable over your 28

day average you and this is also termed

this is tsp or acute to chronic workload

ratio or two different ways to look at

this and depending on your sport like it

doesn't have to be a seven over 28

that's if you have really nice

consistent data and you're training a

lot and consistently 7 over 28 is a

really great way to do it I've got a

sport like football sometimes a three

over nine might be more realistic for

that sport because of the the ways that

the the week is really mapped out but

anyways the the easy part of this and

what some of the publications have shown

and this obviously isn't a hard and fast

rule and has to be studied for each

sport but it really simplifies things

and and what a lot of people are looking

at with training with these days is you

want to look you want that training

stressed balanced or acute chronic

workload ratio to basically be

consistent so you want to be you know

rule of thumb is between 80 and 130 it's

kind of a percent of your acute over

chronic workload ratio yeah anything

higher than that and you've really

spiked your workload so your

training load has not prepared you for

that big spike in that acute workload

that you've got and conversely if you're

low on that then you're low on your

acute event high workload so then when

you build it back up and you spike back

up so it really is kind of an easy way

to say okay we got complicated metrics

you don't have to know the equation but

we want to keep you kind of in that

green value it's okay to train hard

let's train hard consistently and not

dip and dive through those then that

becomes now applying these two different

workload visualizations so again being

able to you know if you have systems

that you can do both external and

internal and I you can do fun things

where it's looking at but those on top

of each other ratios of those different

to you know how their RPE combines with

their mechanical workload and looking at

some other fatigue metrics in there so

really you know kind of what I tried to

lay out for you guys is looking at

everything in that recovery stress state

and how how important that data

visualizations are so just selecting a

technology gets you the first way

through you know getting that workflow

in and making sure it's not taxing your

coaches and taxing your athletes too

much is the second thing and then

driving your visualization so your

coaches can actually make decisions and

again this isn't meant to be like a

completely automated Terminator kind of

thing where it's saying like this is

exactly what you need to do it's helping

drive insights to those coaches so so

they can do you know have those

conversations with the athletes and do

the things that they're good at really

the last thing to kind of end this on is

you know what are some of the challenges

that we've got and kind of the current

state of sports science right now and

why are we not able to answer a lot of

things that we want to answer you know

right away and you know really you know

kind of looking at where the different

the different people lie in this so

we've got you know scientists and

academia and we got practitioners on

kind of both ends of this and then the

sports science scientist is trying to

put this together so really what I feel

you know there's a big opportunity here

and I know that you know I love doing

applied research and I love trying to

design studies that are agile and quick

and we can get these answers in the

communities that we want to get them so

how do we do that so I think we're all

kind of have a common vision you know

working in this field of

what are the ways that we could do that

and the good news is is if you're if

you're doing this monitoring and you're

using technologies and you're doing

things in a good way there's good ways

to do this and just want to kind of map

out you know some of the different ways

to you know effectively what we're

trying to do is we're trying to design

an execute constant and agile applied

studies and so if you're a coach on the

floor and you're collecting data we have

the opportunity to do this so it's kind

of taking you know some things from

science and that sports finance this

kind of tying those things together

understanding the current state of

literature but then also talking to the

coaches and what do we need to answer it

what do we not know and how do we take

the data that you're collecting already

and ideally not modify a lot and what

you're doing and get these answers so

really you know kind of the first thing

is is the understanding phase so

figuring out what your priorities are

and what you want to actually try to

figure out and what you're missing and

then kind of digging into the the

current state of the science and looking

at you know different things that can

kind of lead you to like do we really

not know anything about this or is

somebody already Donna there's you know

the good is there's tons and tons of

science out there the baddest you've got

to have the time to read all of it or

stay up on it it's it's impossible

there's there's too much knowledge out

there but really trying to do your best

and there's something very specifically

looking into answers are probably out

there it can kind of kind of get you to

that and you know one of the things that

you know we we hear a lot and it gets me

excited is anecdotal evidence and

testimonials and you know I hear all the

time and a one-and-one of one and while

that you know you tell about to any

scientists I'm like that's not valid

that's kind of where there's smoke

there's fire when I hear that from a

couple different places like hey this

thing seems like it's really working and

we're athletes are really responding

well to this and I've you know all these

different stories of hey this happened

to me with this that's when we really

get start getting curious and like okay

I've heard that from a few different

places let's start looking into it and

let's try to kind of design more of a

study around that anecdotal data and

then kind of that middle part is the

control so now we understand some things

we want to test and we obviously know

this is not a you know controlled study

that you're bringing subjects in off the

street and you're controlling for every

single thing out there this is the real

world so

understanding what's in your control

like what can you control about what

these athletes are doing and if

something's not in your control can you

at least measure so if it was not in

your control to control for training

load and they're gonna train they're

gonna do their training no matter what

which I think is gonna be the case a lot

of the times being able to measure that

and just report that it's going to be a

valuable part of that and then data

analysis is really the key to all of

this and what I would say is don't fear

data analysis it's not it's not overly

complicated there are things that we

could do that anybody can do with their

own data to start understanding things

but then having the right collaborations

and resources to you know really reach

out and make sure that you've got the

right number of subjects and get the

right amount of data coming in and

you're doing it the right way and you're

looking at a statistically so so beyond

you know means that standard deviations

but really getting into some things that

we'll talk about here in a second kind

of a deeper level of understanding what

what we're looking at so kind of to step

you through just a couple of ideas on

data analysis is you know really taking

that data analysis and driving action to

it and looking at the the chief way I

like to look at these is I call these

kind of my monster correlation matrices

so I'd love to look at kind of a big old

statistical blender and you know put in

all of that physiological data you know

once it's cleaned up and once it's

aligned and really understanding like

what are you trying to to map this out

to so if I take a team sport which is

what I'll kind of show a generic example

of is you have a team of athletes and

you know what do I really care about I

care about how they perform if I'm

looking at it from a team level for this

particular sport its wins and losses

that's goals scored maybe any other

metrics that you know goals given up any

other metrics that can kind of derive

from that to get an overall team

performance and kind of see like okay

how in general are there any statistical

relationships with how these perform and

and we do correlations there so looking

at statistical correlations and Pearson

coefficients and basically those things

where you would report that in a

scientific publication saying okay these

two things correlate together positively

or negatively

at a significant value and looking at

those and so kind of looking at let all

those things like you know these these

can turn into massive matrices and then

going through one by one and saying okay

does that make sense physiologically

that this correlated to this and is that

something that we can actually drive

action to so we take that huge huge

matrix in data set and you know really

try to map it out and this is a visual

that's been pretty successful for us to

be able to kind of take this at the end

of a season analysis or end of your

analysis this is this is where that that

comes in handy is you know all of those

critical things that you know this is

what a coach cares about this is right

in the middle that win so all of those

things are statistically relevant

correlations that all map to winning the

game for that team from a team

perspective and being able to look at

that from like the day of the game so

whatever you're measuring on the day of

the game one of the things that

correlated the day before the game two

days before the game and then really

kind of picking because there will

likely be a lot of things but really

kind of picking the things that have the

strongest correlations but then also the

things that you can actually modify

because if it's something you have no

idea how to change then it's not all

that worthwhile to look at it may be

interesting but really looking at this

as we saw drastic correlations and fluid

intake the day before the game so this

was looking at a kind of a game day

minus one

look at all this and the soreness day of

game and Omega weight balance and you

know central nervous system score and

all the things that kind of tie in to

winning and losing and so what's

important that is obviously that doesn't

help you at the end of the season but

what we can do with that is now we we

take all that information and we drive

those next level visualizations so

everything I showed with you the data

visualizations before is it's really

looking at best practices in the best

ways that we know from literature and

from experience and from other

practitioners of Hey look at it this way

but now if you have a year of data and

two years of data and you can drive

those nice correlations and say this is

what we know is important to us winning

and okay two big two days before the

game this is what we need to be looking

at and who's flagging in those those

areas that we're worried about two days

before the game and then

how do I change those things so being

able to drive visualizations like this

one where we've got no kidding like

green yellow red of what's going on here

and then what can I do about those

things so so really you know kind of

want to leave it at dad and you know

tying together this is a really exciting

time you know we're we're lucky to be

kind of working in this this massive

technology age where we've got lots of

really great technologies but instead of

you know what I've done before is

shotgunning and putting too many things

have money too many things and having

the kind of shiny thing syndrome really

picking out the things that are gonna

make a difference and we want to make

sure that that data is correct we

measure it the right way it's accurate

the way it comes out we're diligent

about what we're buying and then you

know once we've got that data you know

driving those key visualizations and at

the end of the day we need to understand

what these things mean and we need to

understand how we modulate it and and

how we can help our athletes get better

so appreciate everybody's attention

thanks a lot my contact information is

there on the slide so please feel free

to reach out we're an academic Institute

excited to work with lots of people we

got lots of exciting things ahead so

happy to chat anytime Thanks any

questions with working with the

populations that you guys have had have

you know have you worked with that with

anybody that has heart issues like

atrial fibrillation or something like

that where they always have more go

variability or have you found it through

doing HIV stuff and that's a good

question we have it on a health side we

have it

but there are like very highly trained

athletes have much different heart rate

variability like a higher normally

resting heart rate variability so there

are norm differentials but we haven't

see it like yeah we haven't looked for

any medical conditions and we try to

stay away from that but that's a good


so considering it considering an

environment like tactical what methods

or solutions have you experienced that

can maybe compensate or support with

asleep and recovery lapses that we're

experiencing yeah so that's a lot of the

really really great recovery stuff

requires facilities and equipment so

that's front on our mind so a lot of

stuff that I've learned from some of the

military groups is floatation therapy is

like the most magic thing that we've

seen and if anybody's had the chance to

do it or if you haven't go find a place

and do it

that's amazing from a holistic benefit

sleep benefits stress reduction benefits

I'm really excited about

photobiomodulation therapy the red

near-infrared light there's some some

good technologies for that that are

coming on the market

no but the war is one that does whole

body and there's some competitors coming

out to that I think sleep hygiene

hygiene and meditation and mindfulness

that's huge because that's something you

can take on the road and you can teach

yourself and I think that's probably the

most critical thing that we can do is

you've got to de-stress and you have to

you have to do those things well because

I think it's all coming down to how do

we optimize your sleep like that's the

number one thing that I can do like I

love all this fancy stuff and I I flow

it every day if I could and do all this

stuff but if you're tactical and you're


like what can I give you out there and I

can give you guided meditations we're

even thinking about trying to do like a

virtual reality float tank where yeah

it's probably not gonna be as good but

if you can put oculus rift or something

on your face and I can get you maybe

like a 70% benefit of what I can get in

the flow tank like those are things that

we're trying to get to so something I

can actually deploy and you can take

with you any questions

all right I'll be around happy to chat a

little bit longer - thanks


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